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The Caerdroia Archive

The following articles from various editions of Caerdroia - the Journal of Mazes & Labyrinths are reproduced here in PDF format. Since it was first produced in 1980, Caerdroia has published a multitude of papers, articles and notes on many aspects of mazes and labyrinths - their history and distribution, usage and development as well as theoretical matters and news items. Much of the material in the earliest issues has long since been superceded, but a full listing of all the relevant items from Caerdroia 6 (the first edition to appear in magazine format) onwards is provided in the Caerdroia Index, also available below.

Here then are the articles so far archived for your perusal, a selection from those early out of print editions and a few important items from more recent editions. You are very welcome to open and read these, and also to download them for personal use. For permission to reproduce these articles in any form, please contact us for permissions and procedures.

Please note: all of these articles are copyright Labyrinthos/individual authors as appropriate. While you are welcome to print a copy for personal use, unauthorised reproduction and circulation is prohibited without permission from Labyrinthos. Please contact the editor if you wish to reproduce these articles for workshops, publication or use on other websites.

More articles from the early out-of-print editions of Caerdroia will be added to this section of the website in due course. If there are specific articles you would like to see added to the Archive, let the editor know, and when he has a spare moment, he may well convert and upload them for you!

Click the labyrinths alongside the articles to open the appropriate PDF in a new window

Caerdroia Index.pdf

The Caerdroia Index

A catalogue of the many papers, articles and notes published in Caerdroia from 1981 onwards.

C18 Goose Game.pdf

The Royal Game of Goose - A Labyrinthine Byway - from Caerdroia 18 (1986)

Nigel Pennick looks at a series of board games and their symbolic and labyrinthine connections.

C19 Magic Labyrinth.pdf

The Magic Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 19 (1986)

John Kraft reports on the magical usage of stone labyrinths in Scandinavia.

C21 Side.pdf

The Side Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 21 (1987)

Sarah Coles reports on a carved labyrinth amongst the Roman ruins at Side in Turkey.

C21 Printers Device.pdf

The Labyrinth as a Printer’s Device - from Caerdroia 21 (1987)

Ivor Winton looks at a series of printer’s logos from 15th & 16th century Italy.

C21 Pagan Sweden.pdf

Labyrinths in Pagan Sweden - from Caerdroia 21 (1987)

John Kraft documents stone labyrinths in Southern Sweden, associated with prehistoric sacred places.

C21 Games Pavements Labyrinths.pdf

Indian Board Games, Pavements and Labyrinths - from Caerdroia 21 (1987)

Nigel Pennick looks at the connections between board game movements and the labyrinthine path.

C22 Side.pdf

Remarks on the Labyrinth at Side - from Caerdroia 22 (1989)

Ivor Winton questions the symbolism of the Side labyrinth carving.

C22 How Long.pdf

How Long is a Labyrinth? - from Caerdroia 22 (1989)

Graeme Fyffe does the maths, and provides the formulas for calculation of classical and Chartres styles.

C22 Cowley Troytowns.pdf

Three Cowley Troytowns - from Caerdroia 22 (1989)

Damon Williams documents the three former turf labyrinths at Cowley, Oxfordshire.

C23 WH Matthews.pdf

My Father, W.H. Matthews - from Caerdroia 23 (1990)

Zeta Eastes recalls the life of her father, a pioneer of modern labyrinth studies and the author of the 1922 classic Mazes and Labyrinths - A General Account of their History and Development.

C23 Leigh Mizmaze.pdf

The Mizmaze at Leigh - from Caerdroia 23 (1990)

Katherine Barker traces the earliest reference to the now overgrown turf labyrinth at Leigh in Dorset, England.

C23 St Marthas Hill.pdf

The Earthworks on St. Martha's Hill - from Caerdroia 23 (1990)

Ivor Winton takes a critical look at a supposed turf maze location in Surrey, England.

C23 Estonia.pdf

Labyrinths in Estonia - from Caerdroia 23 (1990)

John Kraft and Urmas Selirand document the historical stone labyrinths recorded in the southeast Baltic.

C23 Castle Bromwich.pdf

A Holly Maze Restored - from Caerdroia 23 (1990)

Martin Locock describes the restoration of the hedge maze at Castle Bromwich, England.

C24 Labyrinth Problem Solvers.pdf

Labyrinths as Problem Solvers - from Caerdroia 24 (1991)

Sig Lonegren explains his ideas for using the labyrinth - from the Labyrinth '91 conference.

C24 Siweards Labyrinth.pdf

Siweard's Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 24 (1991)

Jeff Saward describes an unusual manuscript labyrinth from 11th century England.

Nordic Church Labyrinths.pdf

Labyrinths in Nordic Churches - from Caerdroia 24 (1991)

John Kraft's original study of labyrinths in Scandinavian churches, revised & updated by Jeff Saward (2005) with a catalogue of the labyrinths in each of the four Nordic countries where they are found.

C24 Machen Mazes.pdf

Arthur Machen and the Maze Theme - from Caerdroia 24 (1991)

Mark Valentine uncovers a labyrinthine literary link.

C25 Babylonian.pdf

The Babylonian Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 25 (1992)

Hans Lyngsgård describes a Babylonian clay tablet in the Vorderasistische Museum in Berlin, covered in labyrinthine drawings of liver conditions.

C26 Nepalese Labyrinth.pdf

A Nepalese Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 26 (1994)

Staffan Lundén describes a little-known labyrinth legend from Nepal - the city of Scimangada.

C26 Ondavalli.pdf

The Ondavalli Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 26 (1994)

Paul Hyland goes in search of an Indian cave temple, and stumbles across a labyrinth.

C27 Lichenometry.pdf

Lichenometric Dating of Labyrinths on the Upper Norrland Coast - from Caerdroia 27 (1996)

Rabbe Sjöberg explains the techniques used to date over 40 stone labyrinths from the coast of Northern Sweden, and the interesting results obtained.

C27 Julian Troy Names.pdf

Julian's Bower and Troy Names - from Caerdroia 27 (1996)

Michael Behrend looks at the popularity of Troy romances during the medieval and the etymology of the Julian's Bower turf maze names.

C27 Arctic Norway.pdf

Stone Labyrinths in Arctic Norway - from Caerdroia 27 (1996)

Bjørnar Olsen provides an interpretation of the boulder labyrinths on the northernmost coastline of Europe.

C29 Polyphemus.pdf

The Polyphemus Cave Paintings - from Caerdroia 29 (1998)

Marguerite Rigoglioso reports a Neolithic cave painting of labyrinthine form in Sicily.

C29 Greenwich Water Maze.pdf

A 17th Century Water Maze at Greenwich - from Caerdroia 29 (1998)

Ann Robey documents the discovery of an important early example of the form.

C29 Water Mazes.pdf

A Note on Water Mazes - from Caerdroia 29 (1998)

Jeff Saward recaps and visits a new example.

C29 Padua.pdf

The Labyrinth of Padua - from Caerdroia 29 (1998)

Roberto Milazzi discovers a lost Italian hedge maze.

C30 Thomas Kirke.pdf

Thomas Kirke's "Most Surprizing Labyrinth" - from Caerdroia 30 (1999)

Richard Crossley discovers a lost block maze in Yorkshire, England.

C32 Rocky Valley.pdf

The Rocky Valley Labyrinths - from Caerdroia 32 (2001)

Often claimed to date to the Bronze Age, Abegael Saward explains why it is likely that these enigmatic rock-carved labyrinths are much more recent.

C32 Harmonist Labyrinths.pdf

The Harmonist Labyrinths - from Caerdroia 32 (2001)

Lilan Laishley documents the first American hedge mazes - actually hedge labyrinths - in Pennsylvania and Indiana.

C32 Scottish Turf Labyrinth.pdf

A Scottish Turf Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 32 (2001)

Trevor J. Allcott documents a turf maze formerly near Aberdeen, appended with a note by Jeff Saward on "An Arts & Crafts Labyrinth" (also from Scotland) from Notes & Queries in Caerdroia 37.

C32 Labyrinths in Classrooms.pdf

Exploring Labyrinths in Classrooms - from Caerdroia 32 (2001)

Ronald Nelson details his process for working with students.

C33 Petra.pdf

A New Labyrinth Discovery at Petra - from Caerdroia 33 (2003)

Andrew Collins reports a previously unrecorded labyrinth inscription in Jordan.

C33 Knidos.pdf

A New Labyrinth at Knidos - from Caerdroia 33 (2003)

Staffan Lundén describes a newly discovered labyrinth inscription at Knidos, Turkey.

C33 JMU Arboretum.pdf

The Arboretum Labyrinth at James Madison University - from Caerdroia 33 (2003)

Pat Kennedy, Dennis Whetzel & Ron Nelson recount the construction of a new labyrinth at their university in Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA.

C34 Palatine Labyrinth.pdf

The Palatine Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 34 (2004)

Staffan Lundén explores the uncertain origins of this curious labyrinth in Rome.

C34 Labyrinth City.pdf

The Labyrinth of the City - from Caerdroia 34 (2004)

Henning Eichberg examines the relationship and contradictions of the city and the labyrinth.

C35 Luzzanas.pdf

The Tomba del Labirinto, Luzzanas - from Caerdroia 35 (2005)

Jeff & Kimberly Saward go in search of this enigmatic underground labyrinth inscription in Sardinia.

C35 Thordrup.pdf

A Life of Labyrinths - from Caerdroia 35 (2005)

Jørgen Thordrup, who died in December 2008, recounts his 60-year fascination. An appreciation of his work, published in Caerdroia 39, is also appended.

C37 Mirror Panel Mazes.pdf

The Origins of Mirror & Wooden Panel Mazes - from Caerdroia 37 (2008)

Jeff Saward explores the 19th century origins of these seemingly modern mazes - updated and revised 2020

C37 AF Mirror Mazes.pdf

The Renaissance of Mirror Mazes - from Caerdroia 37 (2008)

Adrian Fisher explains the modern fascination for mirror mazes.

C37 Perfect Labyrinths.pdf

Further Thoughts on 'Perfect' Labyrinths & How to Create Them - from Caerdroia 37 (2008)

Ellen Galo dissects the structure of mathematically 'perfect' labyrinths.

C38 Labores de Troya.pdf

The Labores de Troya: Church Labyrinths in Northern Spain - from Caerdroia 38 (2008)

Joseba Juaristi & Arantza Gogeascocechea catalogue and discuss a previously overlooked group of unusuual pavement labyrinths in the region of Bizkaia, near Bilbao.

C41 Saffron Walden.pdf

The Saffron Walden Turf Maze - from Caerdroia 41 (2012)

Jeff Saward documents the history of the largest surviving turf labyrinth in England.

C41 Troja Maiden.pdf

A Maiden Called Troja - from Caerdroia 41 (2012)

John Kraft recounts the stories associated with the Trojaborg stone labyrinth at Visby, Gotland.


C41 Shining Mazes.pdf

The Shining Mazes - from Caerdroia 41 (2012)

Roberto Milazzi figures out the designs and locations of the various mazes that appear in Stanley Kubrick's classic movie The Shining.

C42 Babylonian Labyrinths.pdf

The Babylonian Labyrinths - from Caerdroia 42 (2013)

Richard Myers Shelton tracks down a number of little known labyrinthine clay tablets from the Near East - updated and revised 2020.

C43 Labyrinth Samplers.pdf

Two Labyrinths on English Needlework Samplers - from Caerdroia 43 (2014)

Kimberly & Jeff Saward unravel the details of two tiny stitched labyrinths from Yorkshire, England.

A third example discovered - revised and updated 2020.

C45 Itchen Stoke.pdf

The Itchen Stoke Labyrinth - from Caerdroia 45 (2016)

Jeff Saward records the details of the mid-19th century tiled labyrinth in St. Mary's Church, recently uncovered for cleaning, and considers the source of its design.

C47 Scilly Troytowns.pdf

The Isles of Scilly Troy Towns - from Caerdroia 47 (2018)

Jeff Saward documents the history of the stone mazes and labyrinths on these islands in the far southwest of Britain.

C48 London Doolhof.pdf

A Doolhof in London - from Caerdroia 48 (2019)

Jeff Saward looks at a remarkable early 18th century Dutch labyrinthine broadsheet.

C49 RPG Dungeons.pdf

How RPG Dungeons Got Their Doors - from Caerdroia 49 (2020)

Griffith Mon Morgan III explores the early history of maze maps and doorways in Dungeons and Dragons role playing games.