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Specialised Sources & Academic Studies - Turf Labyrinths


Found throughout the British Isles, and also in Germany and the south of Sweden, turf labyrinths are essentially the southern counterpart of the widespread stone labyrinths of Scandinavia. The following books, papers and articles provide essential reading on specific locations, general history and distribution.


British Isles

Allcott, Trevor. "A Scottish Turf Labyrinth" Caerdroia 32 (2001), pp.39-40. (Stuartfield, Aberdeenshire).

Allcroft, A. Hadrian. Earthworks of England. London: Macmillan & Co., 1908.

Barker, Katherine. "The Mizmaze at Leigh" Caerdroia 23 (1990), pp.9-14.

Behrend, Michael. "Julian Bowers" Caerdroia 15 (1984), pp.4-7.

Behrend, Michael. "Julian's Bower and Troy Names" Caerdroia 27 (1996), pp.18-23.

Braybrooke, Lord. Audley End and Saffron Walden (1836), manuscript insertion (1859) in Saffron Walden Museum, Essex, England.

Fisher, Adrian & Georg Gerster. The Art of the Maze. London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1990.

Halliday, Robert. "Three Cambridgeshire Mazes" Caerdroia 22 (1989), pp.44-47.

Harte, Jeremy, "Dorset's Maypoles and Mazes" Dorset County Magazine, vol.113 (1986).

Hawkes, C.F.C., J.N.L. Myres & C.G. Stevens.  "Saint Catherine's Hill, Winchester" Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, vol.XI. Winchester: Warren & Son Ltd., 1930.

Matthews, W.H. Mazes and Labyrinths - A General Account of their History and Developments. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1922.

Mitchell, T.J. "Some Observations on Turf Mazes" Scarborough and District Archaeological Society Transactions, vol.1, no.5 (1962) pp.7-14. (Dalby, Yorkshire).

Morrell, R.W. Nottingham's Mysterious Mazes. Nottingham, England: APRA Press, 1990.

Mullard, Jonathan. Caerdroia Salopia. Telford, England: Mizmaze Publications, 1983. (Turf labyrinths in Shropshire).

Pennick, Nigel. Mazes and Labyrinths. London: Robert Hale, 1990.

Saward, Jeff. Labyrinths & Mazes. London: Gaia Books, 2003 & New York: Lark Books, 2003. (Chapter 4 provides an extensive overview and catalogue of turf labyrinths in Europe).

Thompson, Ian. Julian's Bower - a Guide to the Alkborough Turf Maze. Scunthorpe, England: Bluestone Books, 1999.

Trollope, Rev. Edward. "Notices of Ancient and Mediaeval Labyrinths" The Archaeological Journal XV (1858), pp.216-235.

Tyack, Rev. George S. "Mazes" in Ecclesiastical Curiosities, ed. W.Andrews. London: Andrews & Co., 1899.

Wall, John. "Lincolnshire Turf Mazes." Caerdroia 26 (1993), pp.24-38.

Williams, Damon. "Three Cowley Troytowns" Caerdroia 22 (1989), pp.58-60. (Cowley, Oxfordshire).


Germany & Scandinavia

Hunke, Waltraud. Die Trojaburgen und ihre Bedeutung. Unpublished dissertation, 1940.

Kraft, John. "Wunderburg and Jerusalem" Caerdroia 13 (1983), pp.11-19.

Kraft, John. "German Turf Labyrinths" Caerdroia 14 (1984), pp.11-18.

Kraft, John. "Turf Labyrinths in Southern Scandinavia" Caerdroia 15 (1984), pp.14-22.

Krüger, Kurt. Rasenlabyrinthe. Marburg, Germany: privately published, 1995.

Leonhardt, K.Fr. "Das Rad in der Eilenriede" Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter (1938), pp.65-76.

Lotze, Wilhelm. Geschichte der Stadt Dransfeld. 1878.

Magdalinski, Pastor. "Die Windelbahn von Stolp in Pommern" Mannus 1921 (Leipzig 1922), pp.197-205.

Massman, H.F. Wunderkreis und Irrgarten für Turnplätze und Gartenanlagen. Leipzig, Germany: 1844.

Pennick, Nigel. Mazes and Labyrinths. London: Robert Hale, 1990.

Reissmann, Erwin. "The Kaufbeuren Wunderkreis Restored" Caerdroia 34 (2004), pp.4-6.

Saward, Jeff. Labyrinths & Mazes. London: Gaia Books, 2003 & New York: Lark Books, 2003. (Chapter 4 provides an extensive overview and catalogue of turf labyrinths in Europe).