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Specialised Sources & Academic Studies - Nordic Stone Labyrinths


Found throughout the Scandinavian region, labyrinths formed of rocks and boulders, often on remote islands, have been discussed in many specialist papers, especially in Sweden. The following books, papers and articles provide valuable reading for particular labyrinth locations, as well as general overviews of this complex subject.


Bäcksbacka, Christina. "Stenlabyrinter i Finland" Finska Fornminnesföreningens Månadsblad (1972), pp.64-73.

Broadbent, Noel. Lichenometry and Archaeology. Research Reports nr.2. Centre for Arctic Cultural Research, Umeå University (1987).

Broadbent, Noel. "Datering av rösen och labyrinter på Åland" Åländsk Odling 49 (1989), pp.99-105.

Coles, John. Images of the Past. Uddevalla, Sweden: Bohusläns Museuem Skrifter, nr.32, 1990. (Labyrinths in Bohuslän, Sweden).

Damell, David. "Rösaring and a Viking Age Cult Road" Archaeology and Environment 4 (1985), pp.171-185.

Gourina, N.N. "Sur la Datation des Labyrinthes de Pierre de la Mer Blanche et de la Mer de Barentz" Annales du Centre d'Etudes et de Documentation Paleontologiques, 1957, pp.345-356. (Stone labyrinths in Arctic Russia).

Hultin, Johan. "The Bjorkskar Labyrinth." Caerdroia 30 (1999), pp.34-36. (Restoration of a stone labyrinth).

Kern, Hermann. Through the Labyrinth, ed. Robert Ferré & Jeff Saward. Munich: Prestel, 2000. (Chapter XVI - especially the addenda - has a valuable summary).

Kraft, John. "Gotlands Trojeborgar" Gotländskt Arkiv 1983, pp.59-90. (Catalogue of labyrinths on Gotland).

Kraft, John. The Goddess in the Labyrinth. Turku, Finland: Åbo Akademis, 1985. (Folklore of Scandinavian labyrinths).

Kraft, John. "Labyrintnamn - från Troja till Trelleborg" Sydsvenska Ortnamnssällskapets, Årsskrift 1986, pp.8-72. (Labyrinth names in northwest Europe).

Kraft, John. "The Magic Labyrinth" Caerdroia 19 (1986), pp.14-19. (Customs and folklore of stone labyrinths).

Kraft, John. "Labyrinths in Pagan Sweden" Caerdroia 21 (1987), pp.12-24.

Kraft, John. "The First Labyrinths in Scandinavia" Caerdroia 31 (2000), pp.18-22. (Prehistoric labyrinths in southern Sweden).

Kraft, John & Urmas Selirand. "Labyrinths in Estonia" Caerdroia 23 (1990), pp.32-37.

Kuratov, A.A. "On the Stone Labyrinths of Northern Europe" Sovetskaia Arkheologiia 1970, no.1, pp.34-47.

Lonegren, Sig. "From Labyrinths to Mazes" Caerdroia 26 (1993), pp.39-43. (Stone labyrinths in Stockholm archipelago).

Nance, R.Morton. "Troy Town" Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall vol.XXI (1923), pp.260-279. (St.Agnes, SW England).

Olsen, Bjørnar. "Material Metaphors and Historical Practice: A Structural Analysis of Stone Labyrinths in coastal Finnmark, Arctic Norway" Fennoscandia Archaeologica VIII (1991), pp.51-58.

Olsen, Bjørnar. "Stone Labyrinths in Arctic Norway" Caerdroia 27 (1996), pp.24-27.

Saward, Jeff. "Labyrinths of the Scillies" Caerdroia 23 (1990), pp.43-47. (Scilly Islands, SW England).

Saward, Jeff & Deb Saward. "The Labyrinth in Iceland" Caerdroia 29 (1998), pp.58-60.

Saward, Jeff. Labyrinths & Mazes. London: Gaia Books, 2003 & New York: Lark Books, 2003. (Chapter 4 provides an extensive overview of the stone labyrinths in Scandinavia, Iceland & Russia).

Sjöberg, Rabbe. "Lichenometric Dating of Boulder Labyrinths on the Upper Norrland Coast, Sweden" Caerdroia 27 (1996), pp.10-17.

Stjernström, Bo. "Ålands Labyrinter" Åländsk Odling 49 (1989), pp.107-115. (Åland archipelago, Finland).

Stjernström, Bo. "Baltic Labyrinths" Caerdroia 24 (1991), pp.14-17.

Stjernström, Bo & Anita Stjernström. "Magiska instrument längs leden" Dalarö-leden, Skärgårdsstiftelsens Årsbok (1998), pp.90-99. (Stockholm archipelago).

Thordrup, Jørgen. Alle Tiders Labyrinter. Silkeborg, Denmark: Dixit, 2002. (Stone labyrinths in Denmark & Scandinavia).

Vinnikov, A.Z. & A.T.Sinyuk. Following the Paths of the Past Centuries. Voronezh, Russia: 1990. (Central Russia).

Westerdahl, Christer. "Navigational Aspects of Stone Labyrinths and Compass Cards" Caerdroia 25 (1992), pp.32-40.