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Specialised Sources & Academic Studies - Early Artefacts, Petroglyphs and Graffiti


The earliest labyrinths in Europe are preserved as rock-carvings (petroglyphs) and inscriptions, or on artefacts found during archeological excavation. However, their dates are often difficult to determine.


Anati, Emmanuel. Camonica Valley. London: Jonathan Cape, 1964.

Anati, Emmanuel. Evoluzione e stile nell'Arte rupestre camuna. Capo di Ponte, Italy: Edizioni del Centro, 1975.

Bradley, Richard. Rock Art and the Prehistory of Atlantic Europe. London & New York: Routledge, 1997.

Costas Goberna, Fernando Javier; José Manuel Hidalgo Cuñarro & Antonio de la Peña Santos. Arte Rupestre no Sur da Ría de Vigo. Vigo, Spain: Instituto de Estudios Vigueses, 1999.

Kern, Hermann. Through the Labyrinth, ed. Robert Ferré & Jeff Saward. Munich: Prestel, 2000.

Kraft, John. "Labyrinth Construction" Caerdroia 25 (1992), p.41.

Kraft, John. "The Queen's Medals" Caerdroia 28 (1997), pp.24-25.

Lundén, Staffan. "Labyrinth Construction" Caerdroia 24 (1991), pp.24-26. (Athens & Pylos labyrinth inscriptions)

Lundén, Staffan. "The Labyrinth in the Mediterranean" Caerdroia 27 (1996), pp.28-54; Caerdroia 28 (1997), pp.28-34 and Caerdroia 29 (1998), pp.38-42.

Peña Santos, Antonio de la & J.M.Vázquez Varela. Los Petroglifos Gallegos. La Coruña, Spain: Edicios Do Castro, 1979.

Peña Santos, Antonio de la & Fernando J. Costas Goberna. "Los laberintos de tipo cretense en los grabados rupestre galaicos" Boletín del Instituto de Estudios Vigueses VI: 6 (2000), pp.283-306.

Rigoglioso, Marguerite. "The Oldest Labyrinth in the World? The Polyphemus Cave Paintings" Caerdroia 29 (1998), pp.14-22.

Saward, Abegael. "The Rocky Valley Labyrinths" Caerdroia 32 (2001), pp.21-27.

Saward, Jeff. Labyrinths & Mazes. London: Gaia Books, 2003 & New York: Lark Books, 2003.

Zanettin, A.-M. "Il significato magico-religioso del labirinto nell'arte rupestre Camuna" The intellectual expressions of prehistoric man: art and religion, Acts of the Valcamonica symposium '79, ed E. Anati & A. Beltran. Capo di Ponte, Italy: 1983.

Zanettin, A.-M. Il tema del labirinto nell'arte rupestre Camuna e sue possibili comparazion. Unpublished thesis at University of Rome, 1975.