Terracotta Angel, c.1896
Watts Chapel, England

 Photo ©: Jeff Saward/Labyrinthos



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The Labyrinth in India & Asia

Brooke, S.C. "The Labyrinth Pattern in India" Folklore LXIV (1953), pp.463-472.

Cimino, Rosa Maria. "A Short Note on a New Nepalese Labyrinth" East and West 45 (1995), pp.381-385.

Hyland, Paul. "The Ondavalli Labyrinth" Caerdroia 26 (1993), pp.11-12.

Kern, Hermann. Through the Labyrinth, ed. Robert Ferré & Jeff Saward. Munich: Prestel, 2000.

Kraft, John. “The Oldest labyrinth in India?” Caerdroia 35 (2005), pp.57-59.

Kürvers, Klaus. “Kota Labyrinths in Southern India” Caerdroia 36 (2006), pp.38-52.

Layard, John. "Labyrinth Ritual in Southern India" Folklore XLVIII (1937), pp.116-182.

Lundén, Staffan. "A Nepalese Labyrinth" Caerdroia 26 (1993), pp.13-22.

Lundén, Staffan. "A Nepalese Labyrinth" East and West 48 (1998), pp.117-134.

Nath, Ashoke. "Hoary Past of Goa" India Perspectives vol.14/1 (2001), pp.2-5.

Saward, Jeff. Labyrinths & Mazes. London: Gaia Books, 2003 & New York: Lark Books, 2003.

Saward, Jeff. “A Labyrinth at Kurukshetra, India” Caerdroia 35 (2005), p.59.

Saward, Jeff & Kimberly. “Labyrinths in Western India” Caerdroia 36 (2006), pp.59-62.

Scerrato, Umberto. "Labyrinths in the Wooden Mosques of North Pakistan" East and West 33 (1983), pp.21-29.

Schuster, Carl. Social Symbolism in Ancient & Tribal Art, Volume 3, Book 2, ed. Edmund Carpenter. New York: Rock Foundation, 1988.


The Labyrinth in Southern Africa

Kidd, Dudley. Savage Childhood. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1906.

Samuelson, L.H. Some Zulu Customs and Folk-lore. London: 1912.

Saward, Jeff. Labyrinths & Mazes. London: Gaia Books, 2003 & New York: Lark Books, 2003, p.67.

Saward, Jeff. "The Labyrinth in Southern Africa" Caerdroia 25 (1992), pp.42-43.



The Labyrinth in India, Asia & Southern Africa

The labyrinth, both as a symbol and a story, has a long history in India, indeed, recent discoveries suggest much longer than generally supposed. From here it almost certainly spread as far as Java & Sumatra in Indonesia. How it may have reached Southern Africa is far more mysterious. Surprisingly little has been published on labyrinths in these regions; the following sources provide much of what has been published.

Labyrinthos Bibliography - Specialist Sources

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“Chakra-vyūha” stone labyrinth,
Padmavati Temple, Powai, India

Photo ©: Jeff Saward/Labyrinthos